People vs Products

I’ve experienced an interesting arc over my twenty or so years (thus far) of software development.

I started out as a one-person shop, doing my own things, selling shareware. I had no manager nor technical lead. I had to make all my own decisions, in all aspects, without guidance or assistance.

Subsequently, during my four years at Apple, I did have a manager, but they focused on people, not the technical – myself and/or my colleagues collectively made the technical decisions, and provided technical leadership, and effectively set the product direction. My managers were there to make that as easy as possible for us.

Over my nearly eight years at Google, I observed the tail half of a major cultural transition for Google. Long before I started, Google had explicitly laid down a culture where managers were not product / technical leads. The two roles were physically separated, between different people, and they operated independently. Managers focused on people – career growth, happiness, basic productivity, & skills – while tech leads focused on the technical, the product. In fact the manager role was so principled about focus on people that managers would sometimes help their direct reports leave the company, if that was simply what was best for those people for their own success & growth. And, to be clear, not in a “you aren’t working out” sense, but for engineers that were excellent and simply didn’t have deserved opportunities available to them at Google.

By the time I joined, that culture was half-gone, but still present enough in my division for me to experience it. But by the time I left the culture was heavily weighted towards managers being technical leads.

In my nearly three years now at LinkedIn, I’ve completed that arc. LinkedIn culturally & executively emphasises managers as technical / product leads even moreso than Google ever did. As far as I’ve been told, LinkedIn always has (meaning, this is presumably the culture Yahoo had too, from which LinkedIn forked).

Having experienced most of this spectrum, I finally feel qualified to pass judgement on it.

Managers should not be leads.

I immediately, intuitively recognised & appreciated this at Google, but now I’m certain of it.

People management & (technical) product leadership are fundamentally at odds with each other. The needs of individuals are often at odds with the needs of the product. The product might need Natalie to really focus on churning through a bunch of menial tasks, but to evolve, Natalie might really need design experience & leadership opportunities.

Having one person (in authority) try to wear both hats creates conflict, bias, and inefficiency. It discourages dialogue, because you can never really trust where the polymorph stands. The roles require different skillsets, which rarely coexist in a single person and in any case are difficult to keep up to date in parallel. Context-switching between them is burdensome. It creates a power imbalance and perverse incentives.

Even if an individual is exceptionally talented at mitigating those problems, they simply don’t have the time to do both well. Being a product or technical lead is at least a full-time job. Likewise, helping a team of any real size grow as individuals requires way more hands-on, one-on-one attention than most people realise. It’s hard enough being good at either one of them alone – anyone that attempts doing both simultaneously ends up doing neither effectively.

I’ve had the opportunity to be both a technical lead only and a manager only. This is quite rare in the tech industry. I deeply appreciated being able to focus on just one of those roles at a time. I could be consistent, deliberate, and honest. I could, as a manager, tell people exactly what I thought they should or shouldn’t work on, irrespective of what the product(s) need, because I knew the technical lead(s) would worry about those angles. Conversely, when I was a technical lead, I could lay out what was simply, objectively best for the project, uncomplicated by individuals’ interests. In either case, there was real, other human being that could be debated with, as necessary, to find happy mediums.

Yet beyond just being more efficient and effective, the serendipitous consequence was that it gave agency to the individuals – whenever a conflict arose between people and products, it was revealed to them, and the implicit decision about it at least in part theirs to make. Most importantly, they knew that whichever way they leaned they had someone in their corner who had their back.

(Of course, sometimes they didn’t like having to make that decision, but putting it on them forced them to take control and responsibility for themselves, and evolve into more confident, happy, motivated developers.)

I suppose it’s no surprise that companies tends this way – to conflate people with products. These days, for many big tech companies, people literally are the products, and their humanity inevitably stripped away in the process. People are “promoted” into management from technical positions, and often by way of the Peter Principle, are not actually good people managers, nor able to relinquish their former role and ways of thinking. A hierarchy of technical leads in manager’s clothing becomes self-sustaining, self-selecting, and self-enforcing.

The question is: what’s the antidote?

Acknowledgement: I was inspired to pen this post by reading Tanner Wortham‘s Why Manager as Product Owner Will Usually Fail, which is essentially positing the same thing albeit in different terminology.

Why I wanted to intern at Apple

I just found this while reviewing some very old backups. Like most things of this ancient era, I’d completely forgotten about it, so it’s been fascinating to look back – as if in the 3rd person – at my younger, far away self.

I don’t recall why exactly, but evidently I had to write some kind of cover letter in order to intern at Apple. I don’t even know if this was addressed to Apple, or was perhaps just part of the visa process.

Statement of Motivation

My internship offered at Apple Computer Inc. is a fantastic opportunity for me to be introduced to and get involved with one of the worlds leading and most innovative technology companies.  It will provide exposure to their current – and possibly future – hardware products, as well as the processes by which they develop them.

Additionally, the time in the U.S.A. will provide exposure to U.S. culture and general life, which will be an invaluable grounding should I pursue further work in the U.S.A. (at a later date).  While I have no immediate plans to do so, I would certainly like to have the option, as the U.S.A. is the worldwide hub for development of advanced computer technology – the best place for someone in my industry to end up.

In terms of furthering my studies and career, the impact is almost immeasurable.  My employability – not just in Australia, but also internationally – will be increased tremendously by the internship, both from the training and experience provided as well as from the impressive addition it would make to any resume.  Specifically, I hope it will open the door to future employment at Apple Computer Inc.

On a personal level, I’d like to see a bit of North America as a tourist, as much as I can – visit all the cliché spots, like the Grand Canyon, Death Valley, Yosemite, all those.  I think it’d be a great experience, and hopefully a lot of fun.

21-year-old me, in 2005

I’ve been to all three of those places now. Two out of the three were indeed fun, as hoped.

A fun footnote was that the internship paid $25 US / hour, @ 40 hours per week. That was about $33 AUD / hour, given exchange rates at the time. That compared preeetty favourably with my prior internships – $18.50 AUD / hour at NEC, $15.79 AUD / hour at PIRVic – and beat the pants off the first real job I recall having, at a flower nursery, in high school, for an amazing $5 AUD / hour.

iOS Family Sharing users cannot mix authentication schemes

Apple supports two styles of two-factor authentication, that they call (and distinguish as) “two-step” vs “two-factor”.  “Two-step” is their older method, though functionally they’re basically equivalent.

If you have multiple accounts on a Family Sharing arrangement, and some use “two-factor” while others use “two-step”, you’re in for a bag of hurt.

For example, any time you change the password on any of the non-master accounts, you’ll have to reauthorise all devices on that account with the master purchaser.  You’ll be prompted, when trying to download apps or purchase anything etc, with a dialog saying “Your Family Organizer, [foo], must enter the security code for their payment method”, asking for some kind of input.  There is literally nothing you can enter there that will make it work.  Not the password for any of the relevant Apple IDs, not any security codes for any credit cards, nada.

The problem is that it’s asking for a verification code that you can only create on a device which has “two-factor” authentication enabled.  Compare for example what you see with “two-factor” authentication enabled on your iDevice:

Screenshot of two-factor authentication enabled in iOS account settings

Versus what you see with “two-step”:

Screenshot of two-step authentication enabled in iOS account settings

That “Get Verification Code” “button” is what you’re looking for.  As you can see, it simply doesn’t exist with “two-step” authentication enabled.

The only solution – to allow your family members to download apps, purchase music / videos / books / etc, or pretty much do anything else on their iDevices – is to force the master account over to “two-factor” authentication.

To do this, you have to go to https://appleid.apple.com/ and turn off “two-step” authentication (which will require you to complete some stupid ‘security’ questions).  You cannot turn off “two-step” authentication from any of your actual iDevices’ Settings apps.

Then, stupidly, you can’t actually enable “two-factor” authentication from that same website.  That can only be done in the Settings app on one of your iDevices – by (in iOS 10.3 or later) going into Settings ➜ <your name at the top of the list> ➜ Password & Security.

There’s no way to enable “two-step” authentication anymore.  And not having any form of two-factor authentication enabled is a very bad idea.  So if any of your family’s accounts have “two-factor” authentication enabled, you basically have to switch to “two-factor” on all of them.

Which would be broadly fine, if Apple hadn’t made it so needlessly complicated, and the two systems so incompatible that their own software can’t figure out what’s going on.